Shared Mobility by Region: Spain and Portugal – 2023 Update

In 2019, we explored the shared mobility market in Spain and Portugal, examining the innovative services that were transforming urban transportation. Now that it’s 2023, we thought it was time for an update.

Over the past four years, the shared mobility landscape in these countries has experienced significant growth and evolution. In this blog post, we will delve into the latest developments, highlighting the emergence of new players, the expansion of existing services, and the impact of technology on the shared mobility sector in Spain and Portugal over the last four years.

Shared Mobility in Spain and Portugal 2023 Update

Ride-Hailing Services


In Spain, ride-hailing services have continued to thrive and evolve since 2019. Uber and Cabify, the established leaders in this space, have expanded their operations, reaching more cities and towns. These platforms have introduced new features to enhance user experience, such as shared rides, which allow passengers heading in the same direction to share a single trip, reducing costs and easing traffic congestion as well as introducing electric vehicles to their ride-hail fleets.

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Case Study – Uber and the Integration of Electric Vehicles in Spain

Uber has made significant strides in promoting sustainable transportation in Spain. With a vision to become a major player against global warming, the cab company Uber continues to expand its zero-emission services with the establishment of Uber Green in Madrid.

The platform allows users to travel on all-electric vehicles without increasing the cost of their usual fares. This initiative is part of the company’s plan to become a zero-emission sustainable mobility app by 2040.

Each Uber Green trip on a hybrid or electric vehicle produces at least 25% less carbon emissions than the average trip. When users choose to use this platform, they will pay a $1 fare; half will go to their driver to support their use of a hybrid or electric vehicle; and the other half will go to the Green Future program, which will help thousands of other drivers transition to battery electric vehicles (EVs) by 2025.


In Portugal, ride-hailing services have also seen significant growth over the past four years. Uber remains a dominant player, operating in major cities such as Lisbon, Porto, and Faro. Additionally, Bolt, a European ride-hailing platform, has also emerged as a strong competitor, providing alternative options to users.

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Case Study: Bolt and Expansion in Portugal

Bolt (originally known as Taxify) has expanded its operations in Portugal since 2021. The platform offers ride-hailing services in Lisbon, Porto, and Faro, providing competition to established players like Uber. Bolt has gained popularity due to its competitive pricing and a growing fleet of drivers, catering to the increasing demand for convenient transportation options in Portugal.

However, it hasn’t all been good news, recently Free Now, one of the three companies operating in the TVDE market at national level, closed its operation in Portugal in April, this is following Cabify’s exit in 2019.

Bike-Sharing Systems


The bike-sharing landscape in Spain has witnessed remarkable growth over the past four years, with an increasing number of operators entering the market. These services offer an eco-friendly and convenient mode of transportation, especially for short-distance trips within urban areas. In response to growing demand, operators have expanded their fleets by adding electric bikes, improved infrastructure, and integrated technology for a seamless user experience.

Case Study: BiciMad and Smart Infrastructure in Madrid

BiciMad, the bike-sharing system in Madrid, has exemplified the evolution of bike-sharing services. In recent years, BiciMad has increased its fleet size and improved docking stations throughout the city. Furthermore, they have implemented smart infrastructure, allowing users to easily locate and rent bicycles through a mobile app. This integration of technology has significantly enhanced the accessibility and user-friendliness of bike-sharing systems in Madrid.

In April, the Empresa Municipal de Transportes de Madrid (EMT Madrid) announced that it will continue to expand the BiciMAD project to the 21 districts of Madrid, six more than at present.

The complete renewal of the system will culminate in the first semester of 2023, with 611 operating stations and 7,500 bicycles distributed throughout the city. During this complex process, the Madrid City Council has opted to keep the service operational and free of charge for users until 31 July 2023. Both the old and new systems will co-exist until EMT Madrid has finished removing the 264 stations and 2,964 original bikes.

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Case Study: New Nextbike locations for e-bike sharing

Nextbike is currently undergoing an e-bike expansion across Spain. In and around Barcelona has the largest e-bike fleet to date and, according to the company, even one of Europe’s most extensive e-bike sharing systems. The station-based system started with around 600 bikes in six municipalities in the Barcelona metropolitan region and is expected to include approximately 2,500 e-bikes at 220 stations in 15 municipalities when completed.


In Portugal, bike-sharing systems have also experienced notable growth and innovation. Lisbon and Porto have witnessed the emergence of various bike-sharing operators, offering convenient and sustainable transportation options to residents and visitors.

Case Study: Gira and the Expansion of Bike-Sharing in Lisbon and Porto

Gira, a bike-sharing operator, has expanded its services in Lisbon and Porto since 2019. They have increased the number of bicycles available and improved the quality of their fleet. Gira has also introduced smart technologies, enabling users to easily locate and rent bikes through a user-friendly mobile app. This development has contributed to the popularity of bike-sharing services and encouraged the adoption of sustainable transportation options in Portugal.

Last year Bird announced the launch of its integration with Gira, marking its first smart bikeshare integration of the year.

As part of this unique multimodal programme, riders in the Portuguese capital can now see and access Gira bikes directly from the Bird app. Gira stations and the number of available bikes at each are be clearly visible alongside Bird scooters, helping to promote even more sustainable and affordable transportation in the city.

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If you’re interested in learning more about shared electric micromobility with a focus on e-bikes, you can learn more in our free whitepaper ‘Electric Bikesharing, 2022.’

E-scooter Sharing Services


Electric scooter-sharing services have become a ubiquitous sight in the streets of Spanish cities. New players have entered the market, intensifying competition and leading to the expansion of fleets and improved service quality. These services provide a convenient last-mile transportation option, particularly in densely populated urban areas.

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Case Study: Madrid awards e-scooter tender to Dott, Lime & Tier

At the end of 2022, Madrid City Council published its very first tender for shared e-scooters, one of the most important ones in Europe. Following a competitive tender process, it has been announced that three operators – Dott, Lime and TIER Mobility – have been chosen to deploy a total of 6,000 e-scooters (2,000 per each respective operator) for a three-year period. The licences that have been granted to Dott, Lime and TIER have an initial duration of three years and can be extended for six months at a time, depending on the evolution of demand.

Case Study: Cooltra and Cabify combine e-moped fleets

In March this year, the mobility brands Cooltra and Cabify agreed to integrate Cooltra’s moped rental service on Cabify’s app. The service went live in Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia.

Cabify users in Madrid may now book over 3,000 scooters, with Cooltra adding nearly 2,000 LEVs to Cabify’s 1,200 mopeds. In Barcelona, the combined fleet has doubled, with both companies providing about 600 scooters each. Working with Cooltra’s more than 700 mopeds in Valencia also means that Cabify is available for the first time.


Electric scooter-sharing services have gained significant traction in Portuguese cities as well. Operators such as Lime, VOI, and Bolt have entered the market, providing convenient transportation solutions for short trips and reducing reliance on traditional modes of transport.


Case Study: VOI and Sustainable Mobility in Portugal

VOI, a prominent electric scooter-sharing operator, has expanded its services in several Portuguese cities, including Lisbon and Porto. They have focused on promoting sustainable mobility by using electric scooters and educating users about responsible riding practices. VOI’s collaboration with local authorities and commitment to sustainability highlights the positive impact of electric scooter-sharing services in Portugal.

Carsharing and Peer-to-Peer Rentals


Carsharing services have experienced substantial growth in Spain, providing flexible and cost-effective alternatives to car ownership. Existing providers have expanded their fleets and coverage areas, while peer-to-peer car rental platforms have gained traction, allowing individuals to rent out their privately-owned vehicles.


Case Study: emov saving tons of CO2 in Madrid

emov, a car-sharing service operating in Madrid, has made significant strides in promoting electric mobility. By exclusively offering electric vehicles in their fleet, emov has contributed to reducing carbon emissions and raising awareness about sustainable transportation.

In 2021, just two years after it’s launch the service surpassed 200,000 users, 17 million km traveled by its users and saved 1,690 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Their success demonstrates the viability and appeal of electric car-sharing options in urban environments in Spain.


Carsharing services in Portugal have also seen growth, with providers expanding their fleets and coverage areas. Peer-to-peer car rental platforms have gained popularity, enabling individuals to share their privately-owned vehicles and generate income.

Case Study: Drivy (now Getaround) and Peer-to-Peer Car Rental in Portugal

Drivy, now operating as Getaround, has gained traction as a leading peer-to-peer car rental platform in Portugal. It allows individuals to rent out their vehicles when not in use, providing an additional income stream while maximizing asset utilization. This model has gained popularity in Portugal, fostering a sense of community and encouraging sustainable transportation practices.

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If you’d like to learn more about the place of carpooling in modern society, it’s benefits and the correct way to successfully implement a carpool service, download our free Playbook for Successful Modern Carpooling.

Integrated Mobility Solutions


Integrated mobility solutions have emerged in Spain to simplify urban travel by combining information from various shared mobility providers, public transportation schedules, and ride-hailing services. These platforms enable users to plan their journeys efficiently, considering different modes of transportation and optimizing travel times and costs.

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Case Study: Moovit and Seamless Multimodal Journeys in Spain

Moovit, a popular integrated mobility app, has gained popularity in Spain. It provides real-time information on public transport options, shared mobility services, and even includes features like ride-hailing integration. By offering a comprehensive and user-friendly interface, Moovit empowers travelers to make informed decisions about their routes, facilitating seamless multi-modal journeys across Spain.


In Portugal, integrated mobility solutions have also gained momentum, facilitating multi-modal travel and providing users with comprehensive transportation information.

Case Study: Citymapper and Enhanced Mobility in Portugal

Citymapper, a widely used integrated mobility app, has expanded its coverage to include major Portuguese cities like Lisbon and Porto. The app offers real-time information on public transportation options, bike-sharing services, and ride-hailing platforms, allowing users to plan their journeys efficiently. Citymapper’s user-friendly interface and integration of various transportation modes have made it a go-to tool for travelers in Portugal, enhancing mobility options and simplifying travel planning.

Over the past four years, shared mobility in Spain and Portugal has undergone significant transformations. Ride-hailing services have expanded and embraced sustainability, bike-sharing systems have become more accessible and technologically advanced, scooter-sharing services have proliferated in urban areas, car-sharing and peer-to-peer rentals have offered flexible alternatives to car ownership, and integrated mobility solutions have simplified travel planning.

These case studies highlight the progress made by various shared mobility operators in Spain and Portugal and their contributions to shaping the transportation landscape. As the sector continues to evolve, shared mobility will play a pivotal role in providing convenient, sustainable, and flexible alternatives to traditional transportation modes.

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If you’re interested in seeing how other cities and regions have implemented multimodal integrated transportation systems, download our free ‘Multimodal Case Study Index.


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